Civilizational Conflicts and Fault Lines
Huntington thought that some civilizations will seek to isolate themselves from the West or face it with hostility, like North Korea. Others would try to balance their civilizational identity but without rejecting modernization. He called this "modernization without Westernization." Others would join the Western bandwagon and copy its institutions and values. He noted that some countries are "torn" between whether they belong to the West or not, mentioning specifically Turkey, Mexico, and Russia, "globally the most important torn country." Redefining civilizational identity requires elite support and enthusiasm, a willing public, and acceptance by the other civilization. For instance, if Russia wanted to identify as "Western," it would need not only elite enthusiasm and popular support but also acceptance by the West for that to happen. Huntington predicted that we'd see civilizational fault lines in a war between Russia and Ukraine, as well as in the conflict between Islam and the West.
“Western ideas of individualism, liberalism, constitutionalism, human rights, equality, liberty, the rule of law, democracy, free markets, the separation of church and state, often have little resonance in Islamic, Confucian, Japanese, Hindu, Buddhist or Orthodox cultures. Western efforts to propagate each ideas produce instead a reaction against 'human rights imperialism' and a reaffirmation of indigenous values, as can be seen in the support for religious fundamentalism by the younger generation in non-Western cultures” -Huntington